In 1086, William the Conqueror carried out a survey to record the land ownership in England, known as the Domesday book. In the survey, Egham is recorded to have 57 households, which was considered very large at the time.

Evidence suggests that Egham was one of a few planned towns in Surrey during the Medieval period. Developments led to the creation of burgage plots. These were thin strips of land in a row, each with its own house facing on to the High Street, and with gardens and outbuildings to the rear.